So the Greek approach was theory driven by and large : Propose a theory and then justify it. Aristotle previously explained it in terms of vaporous exhalations, which Ibn Sina modified into the theory of petrifying fluids ( succus lapidificatus ), which was elaborated on by Albertus Magnus in the 13th century and accepted in some form by most naturalists by the 16th century. In the 1660s Nicolas Steno formulated modern concepts of deposition of horizontal strata. This is in sharp contrast with Aristotle’s method. Today, young Earth creationists seem like vestiges left behind from that pre-modern age. This latter feature was codified in the Islamic Scientific tradition especially in the works of two great polymaths. Ibn Sina wrote about two types of rock. His mother Setareh was from the same village, while his father Abdullah was Ismaili, who was a respected local governor, under the Samanid dynasty was from the ancient city of Balkh (today Afghanistan). In the case of the accidental cause, certain parts of the ground become hollowed out while others do not, by the erosive action of winds and floods which carry away one part of the earth but not another. During the 11 th century, the study of fossils became more advanced when the Persian naturalist Ibn Sina made his contribution to fossils. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. From United States +C $10.55 shipping. Were large parts of the Earth submerged under water ? In methanol production, all the CO2 will likely be released to the atmosphere when the methanol is burnt as fuel (moreover, it isn’t clear from Aramco’s announcement how CO 2 from ammonia production enters the methanol production process or why: SABIC’s Ibn Sina facility is a million ton per year natural gas-based methanol plant: it has little need for additional CO 2). Cambridge UniversityPress, Cambridge. Earth Science in Britain 1660-1815. Ibn Sina writes, “In many [terrestrial] stones, when they are broken, are found parts of aquatic animals, such as shells, etc.”. Natural Sciences, Part 5 on Minerals andMeteorology. Hutchinson & Co. (Publishers) Ltd., London. This again is one of Ibn Sina’s great contributions to the study of fossils. Avicenna went on to describe the process of the formation of mountains (or heights), after the formation of stones and rock sequences. Ibn Sina and Al-Biruni in their different ways correctly inferred the antiquity of the Earth. al-Jahiz elaborated on Aristotle’s study of animals, and at one point clearly describes distinct species as having had a common ancestor. Hutton’s theory of the Earth had essentially called for the recognition of the fact that earth processes are continuous on Earth. But this does not qualify as a scientific argument, since Maimonides invoked no observational evidence.  Steno, N., 1669. Free from dogmatic misconceptions, he was a naturalist far ahead of his time. In this he was anticipating modern ideas of plate tectonics that, The formation of heights is brought about by (a) an essential cause and (b) an accidental cause. This reasoning had more to do with philosophical speculation and metaphysics. Aristotle thought the universe had existed eternally. Europeans called him Avicenna. Graeco-Roman (Mid- and Neo-Platonic, and Aristotelian) texts by the Kindi school were commented, redacted and developed substantially by Islamic intellectuals, who also built upon Persian and Indian mathematical systems, astronomy, algebra, trigonometry and medicine. And going against the Church was not a wise thing to do in Medieval Europe. “The Canon of Medicine” was translated into Latin in Spain in the 12th century. Sign up to the best of our news, informed analysis and opinions on what matters to you. Aristotle previously explained it in terms of vaporous exhalations, which Ibn Sina modified into the theory of petrifying fluids ( succus lapidificatus ), which was elaborated on by Albertus Magnus in the 13th century and accepted in some form by most naturalists by the 16th century. The idea that what is now land was formerly beneath the sea was already present in Aristotle. In 1027, the Persian geologist, Ibn Sina (known as Avicenna in Europe), explained how the stoniness of fossils was caused in The Book of Healing. Why so? Ibn Sina and Al Biruni are on the two sides of the Aristotelian spectrum. Historical accounts have differed on whether ibn Sina understood fossils to be organic remains of plants and animals. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. But Aristotle regarded this as a consequence of the antiquity of the Earth, whereas Ibn Sina, using a more modern style of reasoning, is reversing the argument; the evidence shows that what is now land was once beneath the sea, and this is evidence that the Earth is, indeed, old. As Adams put it; “Avicenna’s views concerning the origin of mountains, have a remarkably modern tone.” . For centuries after ibn Sina's death, scholars and savants would puzzle over the origin of fossils. Ibn-i Sina was born in 980 in Efşene, near Bukhara, in present-day Uzbekistan.  Islamic scholar Ibn Sina (Avicenna (981–1037) proposed detailed explanations for the formation of mountains, the origin of earthquakes, and other topics central to modern geology, which provided an essential foundation for the later development of the science. Meanwhile, others believe that the term originates from the word “quarantena” in early Venetian language. She is the Content Director for KNOW. His father, Abdullah, was a respected scientist from Balkh, the important city of the Samani Empire, and was from the Shia Ismaili sect. Being interested in the field of Islam and Science and Islamic Eschatology, she produced a documentary on the Golden Age of Islam and directs the Second Golden Age series. 506 P.  Montasir, A. H., et al, (Editors), 1965. “The formation of stones in abundance is either at once due to intense heat (probably referring to arid climate) over vast mud areas; or little by little through a sequence of days. The process of figuring out a rock's age often falls to the scientific techniques of radiometric dating and Uranium-lead conversion technique. He suggests that the mountains have been raised up by earthquakes. . He postulated the theory of the ancient earth in principally three ways. 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